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Sodium Polyacrylate Overview

 

中文名称:聚丙烯酸钠
中文别名:2-丙烯酸钠均聚物; 聚丙烯酸钠(系列);聚丙烯酸钠(PAAS); S聚丙烯酸钠;
英文名称:Sodium polyacrylate
英文别名:Polyacrylic acid sodium salt; Sodiumpolyacrylateinwater; (PAAS)
CAS号:9003-04-7
分子式(C3H3NAO2)N
分子量:一般10-10数量级
 
    Sodium polyacrylate, a class of polyanionic polymer dielectric, is an important chemical product with a very wide range of uses, which is widely applied in environmental, food, pharmaceutical, textile, water treatment, petrochemical, metallurgy and other sectors.
    Sodium polyacrylate includes water-soluble and water-swelling sodium polyacrylate. The latter one falls into the category of super absorbent polymer; the former one has a variety of performance due to different molecular weights and is widely used in food, feed, textile, papermaking, water treatment, petrochemical, agriculture, forestry and gardening, physical health and other fields.
    Water-soluble sodium polyacrylate has different uses due to its differences in relative molecular weight. It can be divided into: sodium polyacrylate with low relative molecular weight (approximately 1000-10000), mainly for dispersion; that with medium relative molecular weight (about 104 -106), mainly for thickening; that with high relative molecular weight (approximately 106-107), mainly for flocculation; that with ultra-low relative molecular weight (700 and less), whose use has not yet fully developed; and that with ultra-high relative molecular weight, which is a super absorbent polymer, mainly used as a water absorbent.
    Polyacrylic acid as starting material mostly sodium hydroxide neutralized by polymerization, but also with other monomers copolymerized with sodium acrylate, the performance of the modified sodium polyacrylate, sodium polyacrylate copolymer synthesized with specific properties.
    As a fine chemical product, sodium polyacrylate has been extensively studied in recent years. For its synthesis methods, solution method, suspension method and emulsion method can be used to synthesize liquid, colloidal, sheet or powder polymers according to factors such as specific molecular weight, applications, economic aspect, etc. Molecular weight of sodium polyacrylate varies from a few hundred to tens of millions, and sodium polyacrylate with a different molecular weight has different uses.
    Sodium polyacrylate has a wide range of uses, which can be divided into two categories: industrial and food additives. Its industrial products include white (or light yellow) lumps or powders; and colorless (or light yellow) viscous liquids. Industrial applications cover chemical industry in daily use, agriculture, petroleum industry, industrial water recycling system, mining, paint, papermaking, textile, construction and medical and health industries.
    Due to the expansion in its application fields, Hangzhou Xumex Chemical Co., Ltd. has developed a series of sodium polyacrylate products through its own R&D team, which have been used in various industries and have been highly recognized in the market.
Food-grade Sodium Polyacrylate
 Food-grade Sodium Polyacrylate

  

    As a new food gum, sodium polyacrylate is a high-molecular compound with hydrophilic genes, which can form a highly viscous transparent solution after being slowly dissolved in water, whose viscosity is about 15-20 times that of CMC and the sodium alginate. Being used as a food gum is one of the applications of its thickening properties. It has been used in a variety of foods for thickening, tenacity and preservation, etc. in foreign countries since the 1960s. 

Project
指 标
Sulfate (SO4) ,w/ %      ≤
0.49
Heavy metal (Pb) /(mg/kg)   ≤
20.0
Arsenic (As) /(mg/kg)       ≤
2.0
Residual monomers ,w/ %    ≤
1.0
Oligomers ,w/ %               ≤
5.0
Loss on drying ,w/ %               <
6.0
Residue on Ignition ,w/ %      ≤
76.0
pH (0.1% aqueous solution)
8~10
0.2% aqueous solution viscosity(60rpm.20℃)
250~430 cps
Note: production process: acrylic acid + NaOH → polymerization catalyst → polymerization → refining → drying → grinding → finished product.
Characteristics of sodium polyacrylate as a food thickener:
① It is an electrolyte with high molecular weight, thus high viscosity of its aqueous solution.
② The viscosity of its aqueous solution can be adjusted by changing the PH value according to different concentrations of the solution and using acetic acid, etc.
③ With strong thermal stability, it almost does not decompose below 200℃. Thermal stability of its aqueous solution is strong.
④ It forms insoluble gels when its solution is combined with iron, calcium, magnesium and other ions.
⑤ It can increase the viscosity and reduce the dosage while being used together with other thickeners such as guar gum.

Functions of sodium polyacrylate in food:
① Increasing cohesion of protein in raw powder.
② Making starch particles combine with each other, so that they can penetrate into the mesh structure of protein dispersedly.
③ Making raw material form a dense smooth surface.
④ Making raw material form a stable colloid, thus avoiding the exudation of soluble starch.
⑤ Improving moisture retention, thus a uniform distribution of moisture in raw material, to prevent drying.
⑥ Increasing ductility of raw material.
⑦ Making oils and fats in raw material be uniformly distributed, to maintain their stability.
Ultra-high Molecular Weight Sodium Polyacrylate
    Ultra-high-molecular sodium polyacrylate flocculant is a product developed by the company after years of research and development of the characteristics of flocculants, which is characterized by large molecular weight, fast dissolution, less dosage, good purification effect, easy use and storage, etc. Production tests in China National Salt Group, Suhua Group, Hangzhou Electrochemical, etc. have showed that its effects are better than those of flocculants of other manufacturers.
Technical Indicators:

Project

Indicators

Appearance

White Granules/Powders

Solid Content

≥90%

PH Value

 ≥7

Relative Molecular Weight

≥ 30 million

Dissolution Time

≤ 30 minutes

Residual Monomers

≤0.5%

Application Fields:
1. Separation of red mud in bauxite:
    Ultra-high-molecular sodium polyacrylate flocculant for sedimentation of alumina red mud is a new generation of high-molecular polymer flocculant with functional groups of modification, whose aqueous solution is negative. It has good performance in the red mud sedimentation with Bayer process and sintering process, which can not only play the role of flocculation, but also has the function of selective adsorption. Besides, it can form structurally compact chelate with ferric ions, thus accelerating precipitation. Compared with other flocculants at home and abroad now, it has advantages such as less dosage, faster sedimentation, smaller compression liquid-solid ratio, higher clarity of supernatant and so on. For the application of flocculants in the red mud sedimentation with Bayer process and sintering process, the processes of red mud sedimentation have effects not only on product quality and production capacity of equipment, but also on manufacturing cost of the entire production and the plant. In order to strengthen the red mud sedimentation process, namely, to increase the sedimentation velocity, improve the supernatant quality and lower the underflow liquid-solid ratio, high-performance flocculant is needed in addition to proper designed and selection of the settling tank structure. Currently, adding flocculant is an effective way commonly used to accelerate red mud sedimentation.
2. Liquid sodium hydroxide refining:
    It is generally believed that iron ions, chlor-alkali and other impurities in sodium hydroxide with the diaphragm process are more than those in the sodium hydroxide with the mercury method. If aqueous solution of ultra-high molecular sodium polyacrylate is added, the impurities in the liquid sodium hydroxide will produce insoluble gels, which will coagulate at the top or bottom of the solution.
3. Precipitation accelerants for saline solution refining:
    Precipitation accelerants for saline solution refining used in the electrolytic alkali production industry are used to remove calcium, magnesium and other impurities in the precipitation.
4. Clarifying agent for tap water source:
    A river may become muddy because of heavy rain. If it is difficult to clarify the river water by only using alum, in order to promote coagulation, the ultra-high-molecular sodium polyacrylate can be used for sedimentation.
Low Molecular Weight Sodium Polyacrylate
I. Product Features: 
    Low molecular weight sodium polyacrylate products containing strong anionic active groups, through chelation, dispersion, and lattice distortions, are widely used in papermaking, pigment dispersion of water-based paints and water-based ink, water scale inhibition, textile printing and  dyeing, ceramic making, oil drilling, scientific research and other fields. Particularly, the production of low molecular weight sodium polyacrylate powder products keeps ahead in China, and these products have a very attractive prospect in improving product performance and product grade with their features such as energy saving, environmental friendly, stable and efficient.

Quality indicators of solid low molecular weight polyacrylic acid (sodium polyacrylate) dirt dispersion agent and its applications:

Project

XMPS-DF-01

XMPS-DF-02

Appearance

White Flowing Powder

Viscosity(NDJ-79,25℃)

40% Aqueous Solution 15-25mpa.s

10% Aqueous Solution 300-350mpa.s

Solid Content

≥95%

≥95%

Moisture Content

≤5%

≤5%

PH Value

5-6

5-6

Residual Amount of Monomers

≤0.5%

≤0.5%

Water-Solubility (Fully Soluble)

≤30min

≤30min

Water Insoluble Substance

≤1.5%

≤1%

Residue on Ignition at 600℃

≤20%

≤20%


Drilling Mud Fluid Loss Agent 
    Addition of sodium polyacrylate in the drilling mud can improve lubricity and stability of the mud, reduce water loss of drilling fluid, and prevent the water from entering the rock pores to form water locks and contaminate the oil layer. Besides, it can form mud cakes on the walls of permeable strata to prevent borehole walls from collapsing, which ensures the safety of well bores. Besides, it can effectively prevent jamming of drilling tools and improve drilling efficiency.
Cement Water-Reducing Agent 
    After water is added to cement, many floccules are produced and form flocculent structures due to the effect of molecular attraction between cement particles. A lot of mixing water is contained in such structures, thereby reducing the workability of the concrete mixture. At this time, if an appropriate amount of sodium polyacrylate is added, the hydrophobic radical extremity will be adsorbed onto the surface of cement particles and the hydrophilic radical extremity will point to the aqueous solution because of the surface activity of sodium polyacrylate, so that the surface of the cement particles have the same charge, which increases electrostatic repulsion between the cement particles, resulting in dispersion of the cement particles from each other, thus reducing the amount of water required for cement mixing and improving the strength of the concrete prepared. Pigment Dispersant 
    Sodium polyacrylate is an effective pigment dispersant, especially for inorganic pigments. A polyamide molded part can be made by dispersing pigments in the caprolactam with sodium polyacrylate as the dispersant and heating this mixture. 
Pesticide Granulation Developing Solvent 
    Inorganic mineral powder is the carrier of active ingredients in pesticides. Wetting suspended particulate pesticides can be obtained by using the aqueous solution of sodium polyacrylate as the developing solvent.
Ceramic Additive 
    Sodium polyacrylate has also been applied in the ceramic industry. It can play the role of three-dimensional stabilization with certain polymer chains, and its charge can play the role of electrostatic stabilization. Therefore, it can reduce the viscosity of slurry and prevent particle agglomeration. Experiments have shown that sodium polyacrylate is a good water reducer for ceramic slurries, and it also has a reinforcing effect in dry strength of green bodies.
Sodium Polyacrylate Absorbent Polymer,
I. Introduction 
    Super Absorbent Polymer (SAP for short) is a new-type functional polymer absorbent material developed and produced by the company by using its patent for invention with independent intellectual property rights. This product, with a large number of hydrophilic groups and a unique body-shaped network structure, can absorb water with a weight exceeding hundreds of times its own weight or tens of times the weight of normal saline (body fluid) in a short time and keep it. With its excellent water absorption and retention performance, it is widely used in the field of medical and health supplies. With the rapid development of modern society, the range of its applications is constantly being expanded into broader areas.
Shuizhimei-branded SAP is a cross-linked acrylic acid/sodium acrylate copolymer, which is in the form of white granular powder. With advanced patented production technology, this product is characterized by high gel strength, large absorbing capacity, low amount of residual monomers, non-toxic, being odorless and non-irritating to skins. Under certain conditions, it can be completely degraded into water, carbon dioxide and other small molecular substances. Thus, it is a true environmentally friendly high-tech chemical product.

II. Product Specifications and Key Performance Indicators

Project

Appearance

Saline Water Absorption Capacity (normal saline, 60 minutes) g/g

Water Absorption Capacity (distilled water, 60 minutes) g/g

Water Absorption Capacity (tap water, 60 minutes) g/g

Water Absorption Rate (80g tap water/g) s

pH Value

Reference Value

White Solid, Granule/Powder

≥53

≥520

≥300

≤60

6.5~8.0

III. Applications
1. Baby and Adult Diapers;
2. Sanitary Napkins or Sanitary Pads;
3. Composite Paper;
4. Surgery Mattresses;
5. Pet Mattresses;
6. Polymer for Feet Bath
Agricultural Water Retaining Agent
    This product is mainly used for the manufacture of ice crystals and as an agricultural water retaining agent. It has many effects such as improving soil structure, increasing soil water storage capacity, improving crops’ utilization of natural precipitation, promoting root and seedling growth, and enhancing crops’ drought resistance and so on:
(1) Good persistent effect. The nutritional-type water-retaining agent forms a “small reservoir” required for plant growth in the soil after fully absorbing water, so the evaporation is lower than that of other water-retaining agents that are directly used currently by 10-20%, and release time is 20-40 days longer.
(2) Multi-fertilizer efficiency. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, trace elements and other plant nutrients are added in its absorbent material, so it can slowly release fertilizers and improve use efficiency of fertilizers, in addition to drought resistance, soil moisture conservation, and enhancing crops’ resistance.
(3) Rapid water absorption. Under the condition with sufficient moisture, the water-retaining agent’s water storage capacity can be saturate after it is been placed in soil for 10-25 minutes; moisture stored in it is released slowly, and in the soil layer with a depth of 15-20cm, more than 95% moisture in it can be released in 80-120 days.
(4) Good storage and transportation. If appropriate measures against damp are taken for it, it is suitable for long-distance transport, and its storage period can be up to 3-5 years.
(5) Stable water absorption capacity. The water absorption capacity of the series of products involved in this invention is 50 to 300 times.
(6) If this product is used after it is frozen after water absorption, the discharge time of refrigerant can be extended, thus extending the refrigeration time.
Artificial Snow
    Artificial snow is a high-tech chemical product, a polymer chemical substance. Polymer means long-chain molecules, whose water permeability (water molecules penetrate therein) is used in artificial snow. When water molecules contact the polymer, they enter it, resulting in swelling. Polymer chain is flexible, but it can only extend for a certain length. The product is in the form of fine granules, and has no difference from real snow after absorbing water, which is white, crystal, non-meltable at high temperature, and cold like snow. Besides, it is non-toxic, harmless, and pollution-free. It can also be used in shopping malls for counter decoration, Christmas decoration, films, and stage scenery and so on.
Liquid Low Molecular Weight Sodium Polyacrylate
    It can effectively disperse fouling granules and calcium soap fouling through chelation, dispersion and lattice distortions, since polymer itself contains strong anionic active groups can. It is primarily used as a scale inhibition dispersant in water treatment.
I. Quality Indicators:

Project

Indicator

Appearance

Pale Yellow Viscous Liquid

Molecular Weight

2000-3000

Solid Content

40%±3

Chelating

90ml/g

Dispersing

75

PH (Basic Solution)

5-7

Free Monomer

≤0.5%

II. Use Cases:
1. Drilling Mud Fluid Loss Agent
    Addition of sodium polyacrylate in the drilling mud can improve lubricity and stability of the mud, reduce water loss of drilling fluid, and prevent the water from entering the rock pores to form water locks and contaminate the oil layer. Besides, it can form mud cakes on the walls of permeable strata to prevent borehole walls from collapsing, which ensures the safety of well bores. Besides, it can effectively prevent jamming of drilling tools and improve drilling efficiency.
2. Well Fracturing Fluid
    Prepare aqueous solution of sodium polyacrylate with a concentration of 0.5%-2%, and press it into the bottom of the well so that the strata will fracture. Aqueous solution of sodium polyacrylate not only plays the role of thickening, sand carrying, and reducing fracturing fluid loss, but also the role of sustained release and decreasing the transmission loss of pressure.
3. Cement Water-Reducing Agent
    After water is added to cement, many floccules are produced and form flocculent structures due to the effect of molecular attraction between cement particles. A lot of mixing water is contained in such structures, thereby reducing the workability of the concrete mixture. At this time, if an appropriate amount of sodium polyacrylate is added, the hydrophobic radical extremity will be adsorbed onto the surface of cement particles and the hydrophilic radical extremity will point to the aqueous solution because of the surface activity of sodium polyacrylate, so that the surface of the cement particles have the same charge, which increases electrostatic repulsion between the cement particles, resulting in dispersion of the cement particles from each other, thus reducing the amount of water required for cement mixing and improving the strength of the concrete prepared.
4. Pigment Dispersant
    Sodium polyacrylate is an effective pigment dispersant, especially for inorganic pigments. A polyamide molded part can be made by dispersing pigments in the caprolactam with sodium polyacrylate as the dispersant and heating this mixture.
5. Pesticide Granulation Developing Solvent
    Inorganic mineral powder is the carrier of active ingredients in pesticides. Wetting suspended particulate pesticides can be obtained by using the aqueous solution of sodium polyacrylate as the developing solvent.
6. Ceramic Additive
    Sodium polyacrylate has also been applied in the ceramic industry. It can play the role of three-dimensional stabilization with certain polymer chains, and its charge can play the role of electrostatic stabilization. Therefore, it can reduce the viscosity of slurry and prevent particle agglomeration. Experiments have shown that sodium polyacrylate is a good water reducer for ceramic slurries, and it also has a reinforcing effect in dry strength of green bodies.
Brine Purification Flocculant TXY
Brine Purification Flocculant (XMPS-YS)
    This product is a linear polymer, whose aqueous solution is negative (the aqueous solution contains -COONa active groups). Such macromolecular chains can improve the consistency of water in the water on the one hand, and plays the role of bridging on the other hand; meanwhile, the active groups can absorb some particles in the water. Therefore, it can be used to accelerate precipitation.
Reference indicators:
    PH range: 7-11         
    Preparation concentration: 0.1-0.05%         
    Purified water amount: 0.5-2PPM
Features, Method and Effect of XMPS-YS Used in Electrolytic Saline Solution
    Electrolytic saline solution used in chemical production contains Ca2 + and Mg2 +, which are usually removed by adding sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide to make them precipitate. But the sedimentation velocity is very slow, which will take about a few days, and a lot of huge settling tanks are needed. The effect is not obvious if other coagulants such as starch are used. However, if XMPS-YS is used, sedimentation velocity can be can greatly improved. In the alkali production with the diaphragm process, the alkali liquor contains 1-2% sodium chloride and ferric ions and other impurities, which limits the scope of application of the product. However, if a small amount of 0.5-2PPM sodium polyacrylate is added, the impurities can coagulate on the surface and bottom of the alkali liquor after 1-6 hours, so high purity caustic soda liquid can be obtained after clarification or filtration.
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